Karakter Musikal Lagu Gedé Kepesindenan Karawitan Sunda

Endah Irawan, R.M. Soedarsono, G.R. Lono L. Simatupang

Abstract


Penelitian ini difokuskan pada tiga hal yaitu: (1) menemukan ciri-ciri musikal lagu gedé; (2)menunjukkan perbedaan relasi musikal antara lagu gedé dengan pertunjukan wayang golék dankiliningan; dan (3) menunjukkan kompleksitas hubungan garap di dalam lagu gedé, yaitu hubunganantara nyanyian sindén dengan nyanyian alok, rebaban, gambangan, dan kendangan. Penelitianini menggunakan pendekatan etnomusikologis didasarkan pada cara kerja ala Wim van Zanten,yaitu memadukan aspek musikologis dan antropologis. Musik ditempatkan sebagai objek utamasekaligus dasar relasinya dengan persoalan-persoalan kebudayaan dan masyarakat. Hasil penelitianini menunjukkan bahwa lagu gedé menunjukkan peran, proses, interaksi dan kompleksitas garapnyakhusus. Pada sisi pencipta lagu, lagu gedé diakui sebagai pengguritan yang sulit dan langka. Padasisi penyaji, membawakan lagu gedé diperlukan persyaratan seperti: modal vokal bagus, menguasaiperbendaharaan lagu dan laras, terampil menafsir garap lagu dan memberi sénggol-sénggol unik. Denganketiadaan lagu gedé, mutu garap kesenimanan sinden dan pangrawit dan jalinan interaksi kemampuanmusikal di antara pemeran garap vokal, rébab, gambang, dan kéndang mengalami keterbatasan.

The Musical Characters of Lagu Gedé Kepesindenan on Sundanese Karawitan. The researchis mainly focused on the three things: (1) to find the musical characteristics of lagu gedé; (2) to show thedifference on the musical relationship of lagu gedé song with a puppet show and kiliningan; (3) to show thecomplexity of the working relationship on lagu gedé, such as the relationship between the singing of Sindenand the hymns of alok, rebaban, gambangan, and kendangan. The ethno musicological approach of lagugedé is based on the work method of Wim van Zanten which is a musical approach with an anthropologicalperspective. The two aspects – musicological and anthropological – are respectively combined. Music isintensively placed as the main object in order to discover the basis of its relation with cultural and socialissues. The results of the research on lagu gedé show the role, process, interaction, and complexity of the musicalinterpretation which are characterized by a slow tempo. From the composer’s point of view or the musicalcomposition, lagu gedé is recognized as a difficult and rare form of pengguritan. From the performers’ pointof view (the sinden or female vocalist and the pangrawit or musician), a number of special skills are requiredin performing lagu gedé. These may include a good voice, a good command of the musical repertoire, tuning,and musical composition, and the ability to interpret the music and provide the unique sénggol-sénggol aswell. By the absence of lagu gedé, there will be more limited quality of interpretation and artistry of thesinden and pangrawit, and the musical skills and interaction among the musicians (such as the vocalist,rébab, gambang, and kéndang players).

Keywords


Lagu gedé, kepesinden, musical characters

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24821/resital.v15i1.797

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