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Author Guidelines

The article is written in Indonesian, single-spaced, two column, 5000–8000 words. Author’s name should not be written on the article but it should be put on the article metadata on Open Journal System (OJS) website (If author’s name is still on the article, the article would be rejected and an author may submit on a new submission). Author must fill out author’s profile on OJS website that consists of author First, Middle and Last Name (If author only uses one name, fill the first name and last name with the same name), Gender, Initial, Username, Password, Affiliation (University/or Institution), E-mail, Mailing Address (complete address of affiliation: street name, city, province and zip code), Country and Bio Statement (Department or Faculty). The author must follow the journal template which can be downloaded at



TITLE: Title must succinctly describe the contents of the research article and attract academic readers. The title consists of 8-15 words, not including a definite article (the) and the indefinite article ( a, an). Use the phrases, not sentence.

ABSTRACT: The abstract is a summary of the article. It is consist of research objective, research methods, results and discussion, and conclusion. Implications or recommendation can be added to the abstract. The abstract is an article summary that consists of research objective, research methods, results and discussion, and conclusion. Implications or recommendation can be added to the abstract. The abstract must be written in 250-300 words. The abstract must not contain lengthy background information and have no reference to figure, table, equation, any bibliographical reference either coming within or another article. The language of abstract must be clear and concise. It is a stand-alone summary in one paragraph.

KEYWORDS: Keywords consist of important/ specific words or phrases found mainly in the title and abstract. But, it can also come from the article. There are 3-5 keywords from one article.

INTRODUCTION: The introduction shows what is already known from previous studies, defines the importance of the study, literature review, and state the research question. In order to understand what is already known from the previous study, the introduction must consist of discussing the relevant journal article (with citation) and summarizing the current understanding of the problem encounter.

METHODS: The methods explain clearly how the author carried out the research. The method must describe the research design clearly, the replicable research procedures, describe how to summarize and analyze the data.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: The result sections show objectively the presentation of the research key results without any interpretation using text, tables, and figures. The result section begins with the text, presenting the key finding, and referring to the tables and figures. The table must not print screen, specific numerical values, compare and contrast values, and a minimum of 2 row and column. The figures must be clear (provide the original file as a supplementary file in article submission), highlight trends, pattern, and relationship. The result section must present how the author ensures the data validity and reliability.

The discussion section shows how the author interprets the results in light of what is already known, and to explain the new understanding of the problem after taking your results into consideration. The discussion must connect with the Introduction so it tells how your study contributes to the body of knowledge and society.

CONCLUSIONS: The conclusions section show the answer or clarification of the research questions and opportunities for future research

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The authors must acknowledge any sources of funding that supported the research and may acknowledge the outside reviewers of their drafts

REFERENCES: The reference must consist of 80% from relevant and recent primary sources (such as the article of journal or conference from last 5-10 years). The reference must be written in APA style and using reference manager software (Mendeley, Zotero, Endnote, etc).




APA Referencing Style – Updated to 7th Edition

What is APA style?

APA referencing style is an author-date referencing system published by the American Psychological Association. This form of writing research papers is used mainly in the social sciences, like psychology, anthropology, sociology, as well as education and other fields.

There are two components in the APA referencing style: in-text citations and their corresponding reference list entries. With anything that you have read, used and referred to in your academic writing, you must:

  • acknowledge in text (i.e. in the work / assignment/ essay you are writing)
  • include in your reference list (i.e. the list at the end of your work of all the sources you refer to)

This guide has been modified to reflect updates to the APA referencing style published in the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020).

There are both significant and minor changes in the new edition.

Significant changes from the 6th edition to 7th edition:

  • Multiple authors – in text citations for three or more authors should include the name of the first author only, followed by et al. Reference list entries for works by up to and including 20 authors should include all authors’ names. For works by more than 20 authors, include the names of the first 19 authors followed by an ellipsis (…) and then the final author’s name.
  • Place of publication is no longer included in references.
  • Include the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number, for all journals that have an issue number.
  • DOIs are now given in the following format:
  • It is not necessary to include the words “Retrieved from” before a URL.
  • Database names and URLs for items in academic research databases should not be included in references, except for databases such as Cochrane, ERIC and Factiva that include works of limited circulation – for these items include the name of the database and the URL for the specific work.
  • For electronic works that do not have a DOI or a directly linking URL, the reference should be the same as the reference for a printed version of the work.

To see more information about the formats below, either click on the format headings in this list of examples or hover your cursor over the Reference List Entries menu and select the format you want. (Sources:

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Assignment from Another Unit(Reid, 2016)

Reid, S. F. (2016). The importance of scientific method [Unpublished manuscript], BSC100: Building Blocks for Science Students, Murdoch University.

A-V Materials
Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
DVD(Moore, 2003)

Moore, M. (Writer/Director). (2003). Bowling for Columbine [DVD]. AV Channel.

Radio Programme(Browning, 2006)

Browning, D. (Presenter). (2006, June 9). Black soccer heroes. Message Stick [Radio programme]. Guest speaker Dr. John Maynard. ABC Radio.

Sound Recording(St. Laurence Chamber Choir & McEwan, 2005)

St. Laurance Chamber Choir (Performers), & McEwan, N. (Director). (2005). Commemoration, ritual and performance: the Iberian connection : medieval and renaissance music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir [Album]. Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney.

Television Series Episode(Masters, 2006)

Masters, C. (Presenter). (2006, March 27). Big fish, little fish. Four Corners [Television series episode]. ABC Television.

Video Recording(Russell & Wiseman, 1995)

Russell, G. (Writer, Producer and Narrator), & Wiseman, P. (Producer). (1995). Tackling bullies: An Australian perspective [Video recording]. Video Classroom.

YouTube/Vimeo Video(NRK, 2007)

NRK. (2007, February 26). Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles. [Video].

Book Chapters
Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Chapter or Article in Edited Book

(Payne, 1999)

Payne, S. (1999). 'Dangerous and different': Reconstructions of madness in the 1990s and the role of mental health policy. In S. Watson & L. Doyal (Eds.), Engendering social policy (pp. 180-195). Open University Press.

Article in an Encyclopaedia

(Ford-Martin, 2003)

Ford-Martin, P. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral therapy. In E. Thackery & M. Harris (Eds.), Gale encyclopedia of mental disorders (Vol.1, pp. 226-228). Gale.

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Book: Including Page Numbers

(Wells, 2009, pp. 225-226)

Wells, A. (2009). Metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression in psychology. Guilford Press.

Book: Single Author(Matthews, 1999)

Matthews, J. (1999). The art of childhood and adolescence: The construction of meaning. Falmer Press.

Book: Two Authors

(Colcough & Colcough, 1999)

Colclough, B., & Colclough, J. (1999). A challenge to change. Thorsons.

Book: 3-20 Authors

(Rosenthal et al., 2000)

Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R. L., & Rubin, D. B. (2000). Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: A correlational approach. Cambridge University Press.

Book: More than 20 Authors

(Author et al., Year)

Include the first nineteen authors' names, then insert three ellipses and follow with the final author's name.

Book: Different Works by Same Author in Same YearKubler-Ross, 1993a)

(Kubler-Ross, 1993b)

Kubler-Ross, E. (1993a). AIDS: The ultimate challenge. Collier Books.

Kubler-Ross, E. (1993b). Questions and answers on death and dying. Collier Books.

Book: Organisation as Author(American Educational Research Association, 1985)

American Educational Research Association. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. American Psychological Association.

Book: Government Agency as Author

(Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care, 1998)

Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care. (1999). Mental health: A report focusing on depression, 1998. AGPS.

Book: No Author

(The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology, 1991)

The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology. (1991). Blackwell.

Book: Editor(Snyder, 1999)

Snyder, C. R. (Ed.). (1999). Coping: The psychology of what works. Oxford University Press.

Book: 2 or More Editors(Binstock & George, 1990)

Binstock, R. H., & George, L. K. (Eds.). (1990). Handbook of aging and the social sciences (3rd ed.). Academic Press.

Book: Different Editions

(Howitt & Cramer, 2008)

Howitt, D., & Cramer, D. (2008). Introduction to research methods in psychology (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall.

Conference Papers
Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Paper Presentation from the Internet

(Balakrishnan, 2006)

Balakrishnan, R. (2006, March 25-26). Why aren't we using 3d user interfaces, and will we ever? [Paper presentation].  IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, Alexandria, VA.

Unpublished Paper Presentation(Brown & Caste, 1990)

Brown, S., & Caste, V. (2004, May). Integrated obstacle detection framework [Paper presentation]. IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Detroit, MI..

Paper Presentation in Print Proceedings(Rowling, 1993)

Rowling, L. (1993, September). Schools and grief: How does Australia compare to the United States [Paper presentation]. In Wandarna coowar: Hidden grief. 8th National Conference of the National Association for Loss and Grief (Australia), Yeppoon, Queensland (pp. 196-201). National Association for Loss and Grief..

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry


(Ryff et al., 2019)

Ryff, C., Almeida, D., Ayanian, J., Binkley, N., Carr, D. S., Coe, C., Davidson, R., Grzywacz, J., Karlamangla, A., Krueger, R., Lachman, M., Love, G., Mailick, M., Mroczek, D., Radler, B., Seeman, T., Sloan, R., Thomas, D., Weinstein, M., Williams, D. (2019). Midlife in the United States (MIDUS 3), 2013-2014 (ICPSR 36346) [Dataset].

Dataset Repository(University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 2019)

University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. (2019). Consortium for political and social research (ICPSR).

Dataset Deposit Record(Theure & Gentaz, 2018)

Theure, A., & Gentaz, E. (2018). Data from: The regulation of emotions in adolescents: age differences and emotion-specific patterns [Dataset]. Referenced in

Dataset Description Article(Lemaignan et al., 2018)

Lemaignan, S., Edmunds, C.E.R., Senft, E., & Belpaeme, T. (2018). The PInSoRo dataset: Supporting the data-driven study of child-child and child-robot social dynamics. PLoS ONE, 13(10), Article e0205999+.

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry


(Eckes, 2000)

Eckes, T. (2000). The developmental social psychology of gender. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Chapter from an E-book

(Jones & Gagnon, 2007)

Jones, N. A., & Gagnon, C. M. (2007). The neurophysiology of empathy. In T. F. D. Farrow & P. W. R. Woodruff (Eds.), Empathy in mental illness. Cambridge University Press.

Article from an Electronic Encyclopaedia

(Lai, 1999)

Lai, M. C. C. (1999). Hepatitis delta virus. In A. Granoff & R. Webster (Eds.), Encyclopedia of virology (2nd ed.). Academic Press.

Article from an Electronic Reference Work: No author

("Alka-Seltzer", 2019)

Alka-Seltzer. (2019). In MIMS online. MIMS Australia.

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Journal Article with a DOI

(Vogels et al., 2009)

Vogels, A. G. C., Crone, M. R., Hoekstra, F., & Reijneveld, S. A. (2009). Comparing three short questionnaires to detect psychosocial dysfunction among primary school children: a randomized method. BMC Public Health, 9, 489.

Journal Article with a DOI: More Than 20 Authors and Including Page Number

(Wiskunde et al., 2019, p. 1936)

Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019). Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots, Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal of Improbable Mathematics, 27(1), 1935–1968.

Journal Article with a URL(Ahmann, 2018)

Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 24-58.

Journal Article with an Article Number(March & Springer, 2019)

March, E., & Springer, J. (2019). Belief in conspiracy theories: The predictive role of schizotypy, Machiavellianism, and primary psychopathy. PLoS One, 14(12), Article e0225964.

Journal Article from a URL and Including Paragraph Number(Munro, 1999, para. 12)

Munro, C. (1999). Facing grief. Synergy, 3(3).

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Image, Photograph or Artwork from a Book(Leibovitz, 1996, p. 72)

Leibovitz, A. (1996). Olympic portraits. Little Brown.

Reproduction in a Book(Bedford, 2001, p. 154)

Bedford, P. (2001). Dingo dreaming [ochre on canvas]. Reproduced in McCulloch, S., & McCulloch Childs, E. (2008). McCulloch's contemporary Aboriginal art: The complete guide (p.154). McCulloch & McCulloch Australian Art Books.

Image from a Book Chapter

(Ardagna et al., 2008, Figure 1)

Ardagna, C. A., Damiani, E., Frati, F., & Madravio, M. (2007). Open-source solution to secure e-government services. In A-V. Anttiroiko & M. Malkia (Eds.), Encyclopedia of digital government (pp. 1300-1305). Idea Group Reference.

Image from a Journal Article(Yeh & Xu, 2010, Table 1)

Yeh, Q-J., & Xu, X. (2010). The effect of Confucian work ethics on learning about science and technology knowledge and morality. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 111-128.

Image from a Newspaper(Leunig, 1995, p. 24)

Leunig, M. (1995, July 27). Thoughts of a baby lying in a child care centre. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 24.

Image from a Database(Kessel, 1995, 10:10)

Kessel, M. (Director). (1995). The making of a monologue: Robert Wilson's Hamlet [video,1:02:18 mins]. Cinema Guild.

Online Image/Artwork(Nolan, 1946)

Nolan, S. (1946). The encounter [enamel paint on composition board]. National Gallery of Australia.

Online Map(Google Maps, 2015)

Google Maps. (2015, February 5). The British Library, London, UK. Google.,-0.127676,17z

Original Image/Artwork (Viewed in a Gallery or Collection)(Angus, 2006)

Angus, J. (2006). Gorilla, gorilla, gorilla [wood veneers, nylon]. Art Gallery of Western Australia.

Internet Documents
Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Electronic Document(Murray, 2005)

Murray, G. (2005). A duty of care to children and young people in Western Australia: Report on the quality assurance and review of unsubstantiated allegations of abuse in care: 1 April 2004 to 12 September 2005. Western Australia, Department of Child Protection.

Government Publication(Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care, 2000)

Australia. Department of Health and Aged Care. (2000). National youth suicide prevention strategy.

Government Publication: Curriculum Document(Western Australia. School Curriculum & Standards Authority, 2017)

Western Australia. School Curriculum & Standards Authority. (2017). Curriculum and assessment outline: Humanities and Social Science.

Whole Internet Site(Goldberg, 2000)

Goldberg, I. (2000). Dr. Ivan's depression central.

Journal Articles
Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Journal Article in Print(Kyratsis, 2004)

Kyratsis, A. (2004). Talk and interaction among children and the co-construction of peer groups and peer culture. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33(4), 231-247.

Journal Article in Print Including Page Number

(Parker & Roy, 2001, p. 574)

Parker, G., & Roy, K. (2001). Adolescent depression: A review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 572-580.

Journal Article in Print with 3-20 Authors

(Zhang et al., 2006)

Zhang, B., Cohen, J., Ferrence, R., & Rehm, J. (2006). The impact of tobacco tax cuts on smoking initiation among Canadian young adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(6), 474-479.

Newspaper Articles
Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Newspaper Article in Print

(Kissane, 1998)

Kissane, K. (1998, September 5). Kiss or kill: Who is the victim when a battered woman kills? The Age: Extra, p. 6.

Newspaper Article with URL

(Devlin, 2010)

Devlin, H. (2010, January 28). Neuron breakthrough offers hope on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. The Times.

Newspaper Article from Factiva

(Delalande, 2019)

Delalande, J. (2019, October 26). Our teens struggle the most. The West Australian, p. 32. Factiva.!?&_suid=1576141953014019681669927131606.

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry

(Robertson, 2010)

Robertson, R. (Speaker). (2010). Leadership at the bottom of the earth…where no one hears you scream, 2010 Sir Walter Murdoch lecture [Audio podcast]. Murdoch University.

Podcast Lecture from LMS

(Hill, 2012)

Hill, D. (Speaker). (2012, April 4). Australian media representation of Asia [Audio podcast]. In Australia in Asia (FDN 110). Murdoch University.

Podcast Radio Programme

(Gary, 2007)

Gary, S. (Host). (2007, December 23). Black hole death ray. StarStuff [Audio podcast]. ABC News Radio.

Podcast Television Programme(Brown et al., 2007)

Brown, W. (Host)., Brodie, K. (Host)., & George, P. (Producer). (2007, June 4). From Lake Baikal to the halfway mark, Yekaterinburg. Peking to Paris: Episode 3 [Video podcast]. ABC Television.

Readers/Study Guides
Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Study Guide and Reader

(Gilbert, 2001)

Gilbert, E. (2001, December 15). It's a guy thing. Good Weekend. Reprinted in Bodies, sex and power (WOM104) study guide and unit reader 2004 (pp. 59-64). Murdoch University.


(Vickery & Bishop, 2005)

Vicary, D., & Bishop, B. (2005). Western psychotherapeutic practice: Engaging Aboriginal people in culturally appropriate and respectful ways. Australian Psychologist, 40, 19. Reprinted in Introduction to psychology and culture (PSY246): Unit reader 2009. Murdoch University.

Secondary Sources
Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Secondary SourceSeidenberg and McClelland (as cited in Reid, 2007)

Reid, A. S. (2007). Study of multiple paranormal phenomena. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 45, 13-26.

Social Media
Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Blog Post

(Flower, 2015)

Flower, R. (2015, June 1). How a simple formula for resolving problems and conflict can change your reality. Pick The Brain.

Blog Comment


(Stephen, 2017)

Stephen. (2017, February 21). Re: Why you should let your passion die [Comment]. PsychCentral.

Facebook Post

(Murdoch University Library, 2017)

Murdoch University Library. (2017, February 22). In a dedication ceremony on Tuesday, Murdoch University celebrated the naming of the Library after eminent historian and Murdoch icon, the late Emeritus Professor Geoffrey Bolton [Status update]. Facebook.

Facebook Comment

(Beach, 2017)

Beach, J. (2017, February 22). Re: In a dedication ceremony on Tuesday, Murdoch University celebrated the naming of the Library after eminent historian and Murdoch icon, the late Emeritus Professor Geoffrey Bolton [Comment]. Facebook.


(Kruszelnicki, 2017)

Kruszelnicki, K. [@DoctorKarl]. (2017, February 19). Fact-checker scientist @bengoldacre, evidence-based medicine, dead cat #Shirtloadsofscience: [Tweet]. ref_src=twsrc^google| twcamp^serp|twgr^author

YouTube/Vimeo/Ted Talk video

(Setrakian, 2017)

Setrakian, L. (2017, January). Lara Setrakian: 3 ways to fix a broken news industry. [Video]. broken_news_industry#t-521404

YouTube Comment

(Kirk, 2017)

Kirk, J. (2017, February). Re: Medieval helpdesk with English subtitles. [Comment]. YouTube.

Instagram Post

(Murdoch University Library, 2017)

Murdoch University Library. (2017, February 21). An exhibition entitled ‘Geoffrey Bolton: The Legacy of an Eminent Historian and Iconic Murdoch Figure’, featuring artworks, pictures, awards and memorabilia relating to his life, will be showcased in the University Library foyer until March 17 {Photographs].

Instagram Comment

(Coltferrari, 2017)

Coltferrari. (2017, February 21). Re: An exhibition entitled ‘Geoffrey Bolton: The Legacy of an Eminent Historian and Iconic Murdoch Figure’, featuring artworks, pictures, awards and memorabilia relating to his life, will be showcased in the University Library foyer until March 17 {Comment]. Instagram.



(StudentVIP, 2017)

StudentVIP. (2017). Lost on Campus (Version 4.1.3) [Mobile app]. Apple App Store.


(Persson & Bergensten, 2011)

Persson, M., & Bergensten, J. (2011). Minecraft [Game]. Mojang Synergies AB.

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Unpublished Thesis(Milnes, 1998)

Milnes, G. M. (1998). Adolescent depression: The use of generative instruction to increase rational beliefs and decrease irrational beliefs and depressed mood [Unpublished M.Appl.Psy. thesis]. Murdoch University.

Published Thesis

(May, 2007)

May, B. (2007) A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud. Canopus Publishing.

Thesis from a Database

(Roemmele, 2018)

Roemmele, M. (2018). Neural networks for narrative continuation (Publication No. 22621448) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Thesis from a Repository

(Ryan, 2014)

Ryan, J. (2014). The measurement and meaning of coping in psychiatric patients [PhD thesis, Murdoch University]. Murdoch University Research Repository.



Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

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