Women Emancipation and Empowerment in The Incredibles 1 and 2

Larisa Indriani Putri, Lucia Lusi Ani Handayani

Abstract


Movies represent women differently from men. Some try to raise women’s dignity, and some still impose traditional values on them. This paper studies the representation of the characters of female superhero in The Incredibles 1 and 2 which seem to support women’s emancipation. However, there are some ideas conveyed through the mise- en-scéne which still indicate that the movie series do not fully emancipate women. The Incredibles 1 and 2 movie series have been chosen as the object of the study for their typical characteristics when female superhero plays the role. The purpose of this paper is to examine how women are represented through visuals and character roles in The Incredibles 1 and 2. The movies were analyzed through a critical discourse approach. The analysis focused on the language beyond sentences and aspects outside the language, such as power relation, social context, and ideology. The result of the analysis shows that the female character in the movies still upholds traditional values, such as male domination, revealing that these movies are not emancipatory for women. Moreover, women are still degraded and objectified through their body. Therefore, these movies can be seen as a form of pseudo-empowerment, where something is seen as empowering but actually it is not.

 

Emansipasi dan Pemberdayaan Perempuan dalam Film Incredibles 1 dan 2. Film menggambarkan perempuan dan laki-laki dengan cara yang berbeda. Sebagian mencoba untuk menaikkan derajat perempuan, dan sebagian masih menyajikan nilai- nilai tradisional. Artikel ini meneliti representasi karakter perempuan utama pada film The Incredibles 1 dan 2 yang terlihat mendukung emansipasi perempuan melalui karakter superhero. Namun, terdapat gagasan yang menunjukkan bahwa kedua film ini tidak sepenuhnya mengemansipasi perempuan. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk meneliti bagaimana perempuan digambarkan melalui visual dan peran pada setiap karakter di The Incredibles 1 dan 2. Kedua film ini dianalisa menggunakan pendekatan analisis wacana. Analisis dilakukan pada tingkat bahasa yang digunakan yang tidak terbatas pada kalimat dan aspek-aspek di luar bahasa, seperti hubungan kekuasaan, konteks social, dan ideologi. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa karakter perempuan pada kedua film ini masih menjunjung tinggi nilai-nilai tradisional, seperti dominasi oleh laki-laki. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa film-film ini tidak merepresentasikan kebebasan pada perempuan. Lebih lagi, melalui tubuhnya, perempuan masih terlihat direndahkan dan dijadikan sebagai objek. Oleh karena itu, dapat disimpulkan bahwa film-film ini merupakan suatu pseudo-empowerment, yaitu ketika sesuatu terlihat seperti memberikan kebebasan namun dalam kenyataanya tidak sama sekali.


Keywords


women representation; incredible film; subordination; empowerment

Full Text:

PDF

References


Beauvoir, de. (1949). The Second Sex. Uberty.org. Retrieved, November 6, 2018, from https://uberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/1949_simone-de-beauvoir-the- second-sex.pdf

Burnett, B. (June 20, 2018). The Incredibles 2 Delivers an Incredible Takedown of Toxic

Gender Norms. The Mary Sue. Retrieved, September 15, 2018, from https://www.themarysue.com/incredibles-2-work-life-balance/

Carolyn, C. (January 2014). Negotiating the Third wave of Feminism in Wonder woman.

ProQuest. Retrieved September 19, 2018, from https://remote-lib.ui.ac.id:2155/docview/1471220451?pq-origsite=summon

Castillo. V. D. (n.d) The Impact of Globalized Media on Women’s Body Image.

Academia. Retrieved, December 20, 2018, from, https://www.academia.edu/6035716/The_Impact_of_Globalized_Media_on_Women_s_Body_Image?auto=download

Cellania, M. (2017) Women and Men on Men and Women in Red. Neatorama.

Retrieved, December 6, 2018, from https://www.neatorama.com/2017/01/03/Women-and-Men-on-Men-and-Women-in-Red/

Conell, R. W. (1995. 2005). Masculinities (2nd Ed.). Barkeley, LA: University of

California Press. Retrieved from, https://genderandmasculinities.files.wordpress.com/2017/02/robert-w-connell-masculinities-second-edition-3.pdf

Dipaolo, M. (2013) Superhero or Super Cliché? Oklahoma Humanities. Retrieved,

October 7, 2018, from https://www.okhumanities.org/websites/ohc/images/magazines/winter_2013/scarlett_johansson.pdf

Eagly, A. H (Nov, 2009). The His and Hers of Prosocial Behavior: An examination of

the Social Psychology of Gender. Scribd. Retrieved, March 20 2019, from https://www.scribd.com/document/352427097/The-his-and-hers-of-prosocial-behavior-An-examination-of-the-social-psychology-of-gender-pdf

Freeman, K. G. (2018). The Feminist Superheroine: A Critical Evaluation of Patty

Jenkins’ Wonder Woman. Sam Houston State University. Retrieved, November 2, 2018, from https://shsu-ir.tdl.org/handle/20.500.11875/2360

Fapohunda, Tinuke (2009) Women Emancipation for sustainable development in Nigeria:

myths, realities and challenges. ResearchGate. Retrieved, march 13 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261718410_Women_Emancipation_for_Sustainable_Development_In_Nigeria_Myths_Realities_and_Challenges

Gray, R. (2012) Women wearing red send signals that attract men. The Telegraph.

Retrieved, December 6, 2018, from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/9105879/Women-wearing-red-send-signals-that-attract-men.html

Hickey, W. (October 13, 2014) Comic Books Are Still Made By Men, For Men And

About Men. FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved, November 1 2018, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/women-in-comic-books/

Kabeer, N. (2002). Resources, Agency, Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement

of Women’s Empowerment. ResearchGate. Retreived, September 15, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227612461_Resources_Agency_AchievementsReflections_on_the_Measurement_of_Women's_Empowerment

Karolak, Magdalena (n.d). Between women’s Empowerment and Emancipation. Arabian

Humanities. Retrieved, 13 march 2019, from https://journals.openedition.org/cy/2108

Kinnunen, J. (2016). Badass Bitches, Damles in Distress, or Something in Between?

JYX. Retrieved, September 2018, from https://jyx.jyu.fi

Kulkarni, S. M. (2017) Women Empowerment in 21st Century. Research Gate. Retrieved,

January, 3, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317745427_Women_Empowerment_in_21st_Century

MacPherson, E. E. (2014). Understanding gender power relations, transactional sex and

HIV in fishing communities in Southern Malawi. ProQuest. Retrieved, April 22, 2019, from https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/2006663/1/MacPhersonEle_Feb2014_2002941.pdf

Majhi, G. (2017). Paradox of Gender Equality in Hollywood Superhero Movies. Arts &

Education International Research Journal. Retrieved, October, 7, 2018, from http://www.imrfjournals.in/pdf/MATHS/AEIRJ-Volume%204-Issue-2/2.pdf

Manalo, J. G. S., Mercado, I. U., Perez, A. D., Rivera, M. C. C.C, Salangsang, S. A.,

(2016). Street Harassment As A Determinant of Self-Easteem And Self-Objectification Among Selected Female Students. StopStreetHarrasment. Retrieved, 29 April 2019, from http://www.stopstreetharassment.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Manila-Thesis-Street-Harassment.pdf

Mirkin, H. (2009) The Passive Female: The Theory of Patriarchy. American Studies,

(2), 39-57. Retrieved, March 20, 2019, from https://journals.ku.edu/amerstud/article/view/2566

Mulvey, L. (1990 [1975]). Visual Pleasure And Narrative Cinema. Composingdigitalmedia.

Retrieved, November 1 2018, from http://www.composingdigitalmedia.org/f15_mca/mca_reads/mulvey.pdf

NEAGU, A. (2015) Body image: A theoretical framework. The publishing house of the

Romanian academy. Retrieved, December 6, 2018, from http://www.acad.ro/sectii2002/proceedingsChemistry/doc2015-1/Art04Neagu.pdf

Red: Symbolic and Cultural Associations. (2019). Object Retrieval. Retrieved, June 13,

, from https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/objectretrieval/node/277

Ruane J.,Todd J., “Communal Conflict and Emancipation. The Case of Northern

Ireland”, in Booth K. (Ed.), Critical Security Studies and World Politics, London, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc, 2005, p. 237 255.

Ryan, L. (2014) The Three Faces of Motherhood: The Representation of

Motherhood and Masculinity in American Films from 1970 to 1980. ProQuest. Retrieved September 19, 2018, from https://remote-lib.ui.ac.id:2155/docview/1669977682?pq-origsite=summon

Tailor, Leena. (June 17, 2018). The Incredibles 2: Female empowerment and modern

families more than fantasy. Stuff. Retrieved September 29, 2017, from https://www.stuff.co.nz/entertainment/film/104604717/incredibles-2-female-empowerment-and-modern-families-more-than-fantasty

Trites. R. S. (1997). Waking sleeping beauty: feminist voices in children’s novels. Iowa

City: University of Iowa Press.

Wingwood & DiClémente. (2000). Application of the Theory of Gender and Power to

Examine HIV-Related Exposures, Risk Factors, and Effective Intervenstions for Women. Citeseerx. Retrieved, March 20, 2019, from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.605.8742&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Wright, E. O. (1993). Explanation and Emancipation in Marxism and Feminism. Jstor. Retrieved, October 19, 2018, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/201979




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24821/jousa.v7i1.4356

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 1287 times
PDF - 681 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a 
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International LicenseISSN 2355-2131 (print) | ISSN 2355-214X (online).

 

View My Stats