Transformasi Ruang 2D Ke 3D Pada Animasi Wajah Berbasis Data Marker Menggunakan Radial Basis Function

Troy Troy, Pranowo Pranowo


Computer facial animation aims to create an animated character expression as natural as possible as well as human facial expressions. Using the data marker catches facial motion capture, will be determined the location of the feature points of 3D face models to follow the motion of the marker points of human faces.

To overcome the morphological differences between the face of the source with the character's face, then applied with radial basis retargeting process mapping so that the character's face can still display the natural expression. Using the data marker 2D, Radial Basis Function (RBF) space transformation was applied to determine the position of the feature points on the 3D face models.

RBF space transformation has good ability in determining the appropriate facial motion marker points on a human face to the character's face. Motion that occurs in 3D face models is scaled according to the relative scale between the source and the target. 

Keywords: facial animation, radial basis function, marker data.



Teknik komputasi yang dikembangkan pada animasi wajah bertujuan untuk menciptakan ekspresi pada wajah karakter animasi senatural mungkin seperti layaknya ekspresi pada wajah manusia. Menggunakan data marker pada citra 2D wajah manusia, komputer menangkap pergerakan marker tersebut kemudian menetukan lokasi titik fitur yang pada wajah model 3D (karakter animasi).

Untuk mengatasi perbedaan morfologi pada wajah manusia yang menjadi sumber acuan ekspresi dengan wajah model 3D yang menjadi target animasi, maka diterapkan transformasi ruang Radial Basis Function (RBF). RBF digunakan untuk menentukan posisi titik fitur pada wajah model 3D berdasarkan posisi titik marker pada citra 2D wajah manusia.

Transformasi ruang RBF memiliki kemampuan yang baik dalam pemetaan ulang titik marker dari wajah manusia ke titik fitur pada wajah karakter animasi. Pergerakan yang terjadi pada wajah model 3D berdasar pada skala relatif antara titik marker pada citra 2D wajah manusia dengan titik fitur pada wajah model 3D.

Kata kunci: animasi wajah, radial basis function, data marker.

Full Text:



Bennett, J. & Carter, C., 2014. Adopting Virtual Production For Animated Filmmaking. In 7th Annual International Conference on Computer Games, Multimedia and Allied Technologies. Singapore, 2014.

Chenoweth, M.E., 2012. A Local Radial Basis Function Method for the Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations. Theses, Dissertations and Capstones, Paper 243.

Chin, S., Lee, C.Y. & Lee, J., 2013. An automatic method for motion capture-based exaggeration of facial expressions with personality types. Virtual Reality, Springer-Verlag London, 17, pp.219-37.

Dutreve, L., Meyer, A. & Bouakaz, S., 2008. Feature Points Based Facial Animation Retargeting. In ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology. Bordeaux, France, 2008.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W.V., 1978. The Facial Action Coding System: A Technique For The Measurement of Facial Movement. San Francisco, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press Inc.

Ekman, P. & Rosenberg, E.L., 2005. The Study of Spontaneous Facial. In WHAT THE FACE REVEALS: Basic and Applied Studies of Spontaneous Expression Using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) 2nd Edition. Madison Avenue, New York: Oxford University Press. pp.3-18.

Gunanto, S.G., Hariadi, M. & Yuniarno, E.M., 2016. Feature-Points Nearest Neighbor Clustering on 3D Face Models. In The 4th International Conference on Information Technology for Cyber IT Service Management (CITSM). Bandung, 2016.

Gunanto, S.G., Hariadi, M. & Yuniarno, E.M., 2016. Generating Weight Paint Area on 3D Cartoon-Face Models. INFORMATION - An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 19.

Gunanto, S.G., Hariadi, M. & Yuniarno, E.M., 2016. Improved 3D Face fp-NN Clustering Using Orthogonal Face Map. Advanced Science Letters, 22.

Havaldar, P., 2000. Performance Driven Facial Animation. In ACM SIGGRAPH. New York, 2000.

Hubbert, S., Gia, Q.T.L. & Morton, T.M., 2015. Spherical Radial Basis Functions, Theory and Applications. Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London: Springer.

Kobayashi, H., Tange, K. & Hara, F., 1995. Real-time Recognition of Six Basic Facial Expressions. In 4th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication. Tokyo, Japan, 1995. IEEE.

Li, B., Zhang, Q., Zhou, D. & Wei, X., 2013. Facial Animation Based on Feature Points. TELKOMNIKA, 11(3), pp.1697-706.

Lorenzo, M.S., Edge, J.D., King, S.A. & Maddock, S., 2003. Use and Re-use of Facial Motion capture Data. Vision, Video, and Graphics, pp.1-8.

Lucey, P. et al., 2010. The Extended Cohn-Kanade Dataset (CK+): A complete dataset for action unit and emotion-specified expression. In IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. San Francisco, CA, 2010. IEEE.

Na, K. & Jung, M., 2004. Hierarchical retargeting of fine facial motions. Eurographics, 23(3).

NaturalPoint, Inc., 2008. arena expression: 7-step quick start guide. [Online] Available at: Quick Start

Guide.pdf [Accessed 8 April 2016].

Pighin, F. & Lewis, J.P., 2006. Facial Motion Retargeting. course notes Performance-driven Facial Animation. SIGGRAPH.

Seol, Y. et al., 2011. Artist Friendly Facial Animation Retargeting. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Article 162), 30(6).

Song, J., Choi, B., Seol, Y. & Noh, J., 2011. Characteristic facial retargeting. Comp. Anim. Virtual Worlds, 22, pp.187-94.

Tian, Y., Kanade, T. & Cohn, J.F., 2001. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 23(2), pp.97-115.

Umenhoffer, T. & Tóth, B., 2012. Facial animation retargeting framework using radial basis. In Sixth Hungarian Conference on Computer Graphics and Geometry. Budapest, 2012.

Zhu, L. & Lee, W.-S., 2007. Facial Animation with Motion capture Based on Surface Blending. GRAPP, AS/IE.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Animation & Games Studies

Journal of Animation & Games Studies (JAGS) - ISSN 2460-5662 (print)

Visitor Number  : View JAGS Stats